Full Answer Language is used for communication. It can be written or spoken. Even when a culture uses the same basic language as another culture, differences in terminology and inflection create new meanings.
Cultural competence in healthcare The provision of culturally tailored health care can improve patient outcomes. InCalifornia passed Assembly Bill that requires patient-related continuing medical education courses in California medical school to incorporate cultural and linguistic competence training in order to qualify for certification credits.
It is impossible to refer to "a Hispanic-American perspective" or to "a single Latino culture". Although these American citizens have Latin American roots, the term "Latino" to characterize them is more correct since it is more inclusive of non-Spanish-speaking Latinos. However, the term "Latino" does not include individuals from Spanish-speaking countries outside of Latin America e.
There is also a lack of adequate research into how race and ethnicity affects members of a group. Race has been used to explain the absence of research.
Racial classifications are based on outmoded concepts and dubious assumptions regarding genetic differences. In fact, outside of skin color, race is poorly correlated with biological or cultural phenomena, which sharply diminishes its validity in biomedical or social research.
Yet, unlike race or national origin, ethnicity is a sociological construct highly correlated with behavioral and cultural phenomena, particularly language, dress, adornment, food preference, religion, social interaction, marriage and family customs.
Further research is needed to determine whether race and ethnicity among Latinos are rather driven by mechanisms of discrimination and macrosocial factors or social status.
Fortunately, not too long ago, the National Institutes of Health took an important step by insisting that any NIH- supported clinical investigation include, where appropriate, minority populations, women and the aged.
This aggregate will never produce a proper sample. Rigorous attention to sample size, composition and sampling strategies is required to research basic psychosocial processes and clinical responses of minority populations. Accordingly, the heterogeneity of the Hispanic community has to be taken into account.
The Hispanic's country of origin, cultural history, migration history, language, family, traditions, religion, educational level, socio-economic status, gender, sexual orientation, age and generation—all need to be explored.
Cross-cultural competence Cross-cultural competence 3C has generated confusing and contradictory definitions because it has been studied by a wide variety of academic approaches and professional fields.
One author identified eleven different terms that have some equivalence to 3C: Poor results have often been obtained due to a lack of rigorous study of 3C and a reliance on " common sense " approaches. One theoretical construct posits that 3C, language proficiencyand regional knowledge are distinct skills that are inextricably linked, but to varying degrees depending on the context in which they are employed.
In educational settings, Bloom 's affective and cognitive taxonomies   serve as an effective framework for describing the overlapping areas among these three disciplines: But, as one approaches the internalizing and evaluation levels, the overlapping areas approach totality.
The development of intercultural competence is mostly based on the individual's experiences while he or she is communicating with different cultures. When interacting with people from other cultures, the individual experiences certain obstacles that are caused by differences in cultural understanding between two people from different cultures.
Such experiences may motivate the individual to acquire skills that can help him to communicate his point of view to an audience belonging to a different cultural ethnicity and background. Immigrants and international students[ edit ] A salient issue, especially for people living in countries other than their native country, is the issue of which culture they should follow: International students also face this issue: The students who decide to hold on to their native culture are those who experience the most problems in their university life and who encounter frequent culture shocks.
But international students who adapt themselves to the culture surrounding them and who interact more with domestic students will increase their knowledge of the domestic culture, which may help them to "blend in" more. In the article it stated, "Segmented assimilation theorists argue that students from less affluent and racial and ethnic minority immigrant families face a number of educational hurdles and barriers that often stem from racial, ethnic, and gender biases and discrimination embedded within the U.
Ethnocentrism Another issue that stands out in intercultural communication is the attitude stemming from Ethnocentrism. LeVine and Campbell as cited in Lin and Rancer,  defines ethnocentrism as people's tendency to view their culture or in-group as superior to other groups, and to judge those groups to their standards.
With ethnocentric attitudes, those incapable to expand their view of different cultures could create conflict between groups. Ignorance to diversity and cultural groups contributes to prevention of peaceful interaction in a fast-paced globalizing world.
The counterpart of ethnocentrism is ethnorelativism: Geert Hofstede Cultural characteristics can be measured along several dimensions that were defined by Geert Hofstede in his studies of cultural differences. The ability to perceive them and to cope with them is fundamental for intercultural competence.
Individualism versus Collectivism[ edit ] Decisions are based on the benefits of the group rather than the individual; Strong loyalty to the group as the main social unit; The group is expected to take care of each individual; Collectivist cultures include Pakistan, India, Japan, and Guatemala.
Autonomy of the individual has the highest importance; Promotes the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance; Decisions prioritize the benefits of the individual rather than the group; Individualistic cultures are Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United States.
Masculinity versus Femininity[ edit ] Value behaviors that indicate assertiveness and wealth; Judge people based on the degree of ambition and achievement; General behaviors are associated with male behavior; Sex roles are clearly defined and sexual inequality is acceptable; Masculine cultures include Austria, Italy, Japan, and Mexico.
Value behaviors that promote the quality of life such as caring for others and nurturing; Gender roles overlap and sexual equality is preferred as the norm; Nurturing behaviors are acceptable for both women and men; Feminine cultures are Chile, Portugal, Sweden, and Thailand.What happens inside the classroom is the most critical ingredient in ensuring that all students are able to achieve their career goals.
Improving educational attainment for all students in today’s schools can only happen if we improve the quality of teaching.
Language in its influence on perception, values guiding what the society should be and norms forming the customs of the society. Language: Language in itself is the combination of symbols expressing ideas enabling people to think and communicate amongst each other, either verbally or nonverbally.
Welcome to the American Perspectives Volume I eText Website for Houston Community College. Follow the instructions below to redeem the access code found in the Pearson Learning Solutions Student Access Kit that was packaged with your book.
Lesson Plans Academy Social Studies Curriculum Exchange Elementary School (K-5). 50 lesson plans for primary grade students. Academy Social Studies Curriculum Exchange Intermediate School (). 80 lesson plans appropriate for grades Academy Social Studies Curriculum Exchange High School ().
95 lesson plans suitable for the high school level. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. Intercultural competence is a range of cognitive, affective, and behavioural skills that lead to effective and appropriate communication with people of other cultures.
Effective intercultural communication relates to behaviors that culminate with the accomplishment of the desired goals of the interaction and all parties involved in the situation.