Marxist media theory Quick Reference A range of views in which the primary function of the mass media is regarded as the reproduction of the status quo in contrast to liberal pluralism.
Postcolonialism and international relations theory Postcolonial International relations scholarship posits a critical theory approach to International relations IRand is a non-mainstream area of international relations scholarship.
Post-colonialism focuses on the persistence of colonial forms of power and the continuing existence of racism in world politics. However, a variety of evolved psychological mechanisms, in particular those for dealing with inter group interactions, are argued to influence current international relations.
These include evolved mechanisms for social exchange, cheating and detecting cheating, status conflicts, leadership, ingroup and outgroup distinction and biases, coalitions, and violence.
Evolutionary concepts such as inclusive fitness may help explain seeming limitations of a concept such as egotism which is of fundamental importance to realist and rational choice international relations theories. Nayef Al-Rodhan from Oxford University has argued that neuroscience  can significantly advance the IR debate as it brings forward new insights about human nature, which is at the centre of political theory.
New tools to scan the human brain, and studies in neurochemistry allow us to grasp what drives divisiveness,  conflict, and human nature in general. The theory of human nature in Classical Realism, developed long before the advent of neuroscience, stressed that egoism and competition were central to human behaviour, to politics and social relations.
Evidence from neuroscience, however, provides a more nuanced understanding of human nature, which Prof. Al-Rodhan describes as emotional amoral egoistic. These three features can be summarized as follows: This neurophilosophy of human nature can also be applied to states  - similarly to the Realist analogy between the character and flaws of man and the state in international politics.
Prof Al-Rodhan argues there are significant examples in history and contemporary politics that demonstrate states behave less rationality than IR dogma would have us believe: Queer and transgender perspectives[ edit ] Queer international relations scholarship aims to broaden the scope and method of traditional international relations theory to include sexed and gendered approaches that are often excluded in the discipline at large.
While affiliated with feminist theory and gender studiesas well as post-structuralismqueer IR theory is not reducible to any other field of international relations scholarship. Queer international relations theory works to expose the many ways in which sexualities and gender affect international politics.
Queer IR theory takes sites of traditional international relations scholarship war and peace, international political economyand state and nation building as its subjects of study.
It also expands its scope and methods beyond those traditionally utilized in Realist IR scholarship. Ontologicallyqueer IR utilizes a different scope from traditional IR, as it aims to non-monolithically address the needs of various queer groups, including trans - inter- cross- and pan- gendered, sexed, and sexualized bodies.
Epistemologicallyqueer IR explores alternative methodologies to those traditionally used in IR, as it emphasizes the sexual dimension of knowledge within international relations. While queer IR incorporates transgender individuals in its expanded scope, some argue its emphasis on sexuality fails to adequately capture transgender experiences.
This leads Stryker to advocate that transgender studies follows its own trajectory. She suggests some possible improvements that trans-theorizing may offer for feminist IR theory, which include a more nuanced understanding of gender hierarchy through a pluralist approach to sex, a holistic view of gender that resists viewing gender entirely either as a social construction or as biologically essentialand an increased awareness of gender as involving power relations among different sexes and genders.
As such, Sjoberg advocates for the inclusion of trans-theorizing in feminist IR theory in the interests of improving explanations and understandings of global politics.Marxist view of media owners The traditional Marxist approach argues the concentration of ownership of the mass media in the hands of a few corporations enables owners to control media output and send out ideas/ideologies which benefit ruling-class interests.
There is no doubt that the mass media is omnipresent, mediating every aspect of our lives. Marxism and the Media — Part one The struggle between the corresponding world views of these two classes, and the apparent primacy of bourgeois ideas deserves further elaboration.
Two thinkers in particular offer interesting models for. MARXISM AND THE MEDIA • MARXISTS AND NEO-MARXISTS would disagree with the pluralist view of the ownership and control of the mass media. • They would say that the bourgeois use the media as a means for them to maintain their HEGEMONY AND DOMINANCE.
"I sought an open society, personal freedom, and economic and political pluralism. I yearned for the power of the law, not the law of power." - Milovan Djilas - Tito Ethiopian News and Views.
The mass media is an extremely integral part of society as it consumes and influences our everyday lives, whether we are conscious of it or not. Whether it is through the Internet, television, newspapers, advertisements or the radio, we are constantly bombarded by mass media.
As Burton observes, the main power of the media lies [ ]. Belfast Unemployed Resource Centre Critique of Pluralism “The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that the heavenly chorus sings with a strong upperclass accent” (Schattschneider, p35) Power is not dispersed State is not neutral Society is not equal Limitations of Pluralist theory An overly ‘optimistic’ view .