Print Key Info Make a list to keep track of ALL the books, magazines, and websites you read as you follow your background research plan. Later this list of sources will become your bibliography.
Study guide For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing.
It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work. Effective note makingAvoiding plagiarism. When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers.
It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing your work allows the reader: Before you write Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read.
These details should include: For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference.
When to use references Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own.
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism. Referencing styles There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department.
Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. Citing your source within the text As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication.
This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below.
Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.
When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work.
If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:Writing a list of references.
At the end of all pieces of academic writing, you need a list of materials that you have used or referred to. This usually has a heading: references but may be bibliography or works cited depending on the conventions of the system you use. The object of your writing is for you to say something for yourself using the ideas of the subject, for you to present ideas.
When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work.
The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. How to write a bibliography.
Includes bibliography formatting guidelines (including APA & MLA styles) plus examples. The APA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called the Reference List. Have you used the proper format for each of your sources?
Most teachers prefer the MLA or APA formats. Feb 13, · When you write a paper or a book, it's important to include a bibliography. A bibliography tells your reader what sources you've used. It lists all the books, articles, and other references you cited in or used to inform your work%(23).
Jun 15, · In scientific circles, the reference is the information that is necessary to the reader in identifying and finding used sources. The basic rule when listing the sources used is that references must be accurate, complete and should be consistently applied. Proper Citations using MLA Style.
Examples of Proper MLA Citations. When to Cite Something: and a complete reference should appear in your works-cited list (see below). The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation, but the page number(s) should always appear in the .