During the 's, biologist Luigi Galvani performed experimentsat the University of Bologna involving electric charges and frogs. It had been found that a charge applied to the spinal cord of a frog could generate muscular spasms throughout its body.
In the s, on the basis of a related phenomenon, Luigi Galvani conducted a series of experiments with animals, beginning with dissected frogs. These experiments were inspired by a chance event in which the nerves of a frog were prodded by a knife while the frog was on a table.
The experiments involved the use of an "electric machine," an early hand-cranked generator. When the electric machine produced sparks and at the same time a nerve of the frog was touched with a knife, the muscles of the frog contracted, producing convulsive movements. Galvani carried out a wide ranging series of experiments which found that there were convulsive movements of the frog when two metals were made to touch each other while one metal was in contact with a nerve and the other was in contact with a muscle of the frog.
Finally, Galvani came to the conclusion "that the electricity was inherent in the animal itself" 2. According to G alvani, this conclusion was strengthened by "an observation that a kind of circuit of a delicate nerve fluid is made from the nerves to the muscles when the phenomenon of contractions is produced, similar to the electric circuit which is completed in a Leyden jar" 2.
The diagram to the left illustrates Galvani's theory 3. Galvani published the results of his experiments in a book called Commentary on the Effect of Electricity on Muscular Motion.
When Alessandro Volta r ead Galvani's "Commentary," however, he came to a different conclusion. Volta focused on the two different kinds of metal used in the basic versions of Galvani's experiments. The diagram to the left shows Volta's theory that the electricity originated in the bimetal arc itself, here drawn in two distinctly different shades, and that the resulting flow of electricity produced the muscular contractions 3.
Volta's subsequent experiments led to the development of the voltaic cell--similar to a modern-day car battery--and to the development of the field of electrochemistry.
Much of our current knowledge of chemical reactions can be traced almost directly to the experiments of Galvani and Volta.Jun 23, · This video was uploaded from an Android phone.
FROG EATEN ALIVE Carnivorous Nepenthes Pitcher Plant ate my frog "Speedy" I wondered where he was! Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician who demonstrated what we now understand to be the electrical basis of nerve impulses when he made frog muscles twitch by jolting them with a spark from an electrostatic machine.
Luigi Galvani was born in Bologna, Italy, on September 9, He studied at the. Galvani’s developing interest was indicated by his lectures on the anatomy of the frog in and in electrophysiology in the late s the Italian physician and physicist Luigi Galvani’s experiments in the s and ’80s with frogs and later directly measured by the German physiologist Emil Du Bois-Reymond in –49 using a.
Galvani's experiments and those of Alessandro Volta, who championed an alternative theory of contact electricity are chronicled in 'The Ambiguous Frog: The Galvani-Volta Controversy on Animal Electricity' written by Marcello Pera (a prominent Italian philosopher turned politician).
Furthermore, Pera uses this debate to discuss the . Galvani’s Frog Experiments Luigi Galvani was an Italian Physicist who lived from in the Italian city of Bologna.
He loved animals and had thought of being a veterinarian many times as a child. Luigi Galvani was born to Domenico and Barbara Caterina Foschi, in Bologna, then part of the Papal States. Domenico was a goldsmith, and Barbara was his fourth wife. His family was not aristocratic, but they could afford to send at least one of their sons to study at a university.