Ethesisid 1142

Perfectivity Triggering Split Ergativity.

Ethesisid 1142

However, the second crusade proved to be a fiasco; a long and arduous march across hostile lands, finishing with a demoralising withdrawal. These orders, a fusion of the monastic and knightly callings, were both a response to the desperate need for manpower in the East, and an example of the way the Church was attempting to tame and even monasticize the warrior class.

As the Muslims began to recover from disruptions caused by Turkish invasions, major Muslim leaders began to emerge. They wished to reunite the Islamic world under one ruler and quickly realised that one option to gain prestige as an Islamic ruler was to win conflicts against the Christian Franks.

The West reacted strongly to this news and in December the following year, the then pope, Eugenius III, called for a new crusade. His letter outlining the request gave details of spiritual and material privileges to be offered to the crusaders.

The immediate response to this was muted however Eugenius reissued his request on 1st March and a more concerted recruitment effort began. He was a leading spiritual figure of his time and was later canonised. For Bernard, the second crusade was more than just a military operation; it was the perfect opportunity for personal and collective redemption.

Library of Congress Classification Outline – Class B (i) - Perpustakaan Sultanah Bahiyah

They moved closely across Europe, reaching Constantinople in the autumn of Many crusaders sailed directly to the Holy Land, including groups of French and Italians.

With large armies on Byzantine territory, it seemed that the crusaders were poised to attempt their original objective: Conrad himself led an army into battle with the Turks near Dorylaeum in October but was heavily defeated.

He then fell ill and returned to Constantinople. The remnants of his army joined the French who were already suffering from heavy losses following a battle at Mt Cadmus by Turks in January However, the newly established Templars rallied around and imposed strict discipline and they reached Adalia, a city at the edge of the Byzantine empire and close to the borders of the Seljuk Turks.

Disaster struck again when the Byzantine fleet to take them to Syria was insufficient in size and Louis had to abandon his original plan of taking Edessa, leaving behind many of his army who later died trying to reach Tarsus en route to Edessa.

With Conrad III returning to the cause in spring ofthe main crusader parties had assembled in Palestine. At a council at Acre on 24th Junethe crusaders agreed to attack Damascus together, with Louis still vowing to liberate Jerusalem.

It was to be a disastrous attempt with heavy losses. The crusaders captured the orchards to the south west of the city but then moved after encountering heavy resistance to the east of the city walls, where the defences seemed less formidable.

The area was open and waterless though.

Ethesisid 1142

The crusaders were harried by Arab cavalry and faced local forces from the north, forcing them to make an ignominious withdrawal. The mutual recriminations that ensued soured relations between the west and the crusader states for many years to come.Microphotonics Center at MIT.

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University of Bradford eThesis This thesis is hosted in Bradford Scholars – The University of Bradford Open Access repository. Visit the repository for full metadata or to contact the repository team.

The Second Crusade, - by Sulis* After the success of the first crusade, many crusaders fulfilled their vows and completed the journey to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

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