Overview A wide variety of processes, practices, and techniques fall within the definition of "alternative dispute resolution. Minitrials, early neutral evaluations, and summary jury trials are less well-known forms of ADR. Many of these ADR techniques have little in common except that negotiation plays a prominent role in each.
These institutions have the authority to make decisions for the society on policies affecting the maintenance of order and the achievement of certain societal goals.
Governments range in size and scope from clans, tribes, and the shires of early times to the superpowers and international governments of today.
The present-day counterpart of the empire is the superpower that is able to lead or dominate other countries through its superior military and economic strength.
Monarchy tended to become tyrannical because it vested authority in a single ruler. The polity, likewise, would deteriorate into ochlocracy, or mob rule, if the citizens pursued only their selfish interests.
Monarchy passed through three basic stages, varying according to the nation and the political and economic climate. The first stage was that of the absolute monarch.
In the Christian part of the world during the Middle Ages, a conflict developed between the pope and the kings who recognized his spiritual authority.
Limited monarchy was the second stage. Kings depended on the support of the most powerful members of the nobility to retain their thrones. Threatened with the loss of political and financial support, even the strongest kings and emperors had to accept a system of laws that protected the rights and privileges of powerful social and economic classes.
The third stage in the evolution of monarchy was the constitutional monarchy. Present-day monarchs are nearly all symbolic rather than actual rulers of their countries. A few exceptions can be found in Africa and Asia. Even one-party states, such as the traditional Communist countries and other nations in Africa, Asia, and South America, have found it necessary to establish formal constitutions.
In democratic countries the constitution can be amended or replaced by popular vote, either directly or through a system of elected representatives. The constitution may thus be only a paper facade, and in order to understand how the country is governed one must examine the actual political process.
Democratic governments vary in structure. Two common forms are the parliamentary and the presidential. The prime minister or premier and the officers of the cabinet are members of the parliament. They continue in office only as long as parliament supports — or has "confidence" in — their policies.
There is no effective rule of law. The main function of a dictatorship is to maintain control of all governmental operations. It seeks to control all aspects of national life, including the beliefs and attitudes of its people.
The leader is credited with almost infallible wisdom, because to admit that he or she may be wrong would deprive the regime of its authority. In some Communist countries the cult of personality appears to have given way to the dominance of a group of party leaders — a ruling oligarchy.
The successor regime in China, for example, continues to claim infallibility for its policies and doctrines but not for the leaders. Federal Systems The United States and India with their state governments and Canada and China with their provincial governments are examples of workable federal systems in large nations with very diverse populations.
The national governments of these countries are clearly more powerful than those of their subdivisions, even though the constitutions delegate many powers and responsibilities to the subnational units.
In the United States, for example, state legislatures pass laws having to do with state affairs; state administrators carry them out; and state judiciaries interpret them.
The citizens in each jurisdiction elect many of the public officials.This is the same thing as a federal government which may have distinct powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its member states, though the adjective 'central' is sometimes used to describe it.
The structure of central governments varies. Forms of Government. It has been suggested that every government which has ever existed has been a prime example of kakistocracy, or the rule of the worst, but this list of different types of government suggests that that might be a bit too kaja-net.com of the following words indicates a form of government or type of leadership by a certain .
A branch may use its powers to check the powers of the other two in order to maintain a balance of power among the three branches of government. Legislative - Makes Laws Congress is composed of two parts: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Nations: Forms of Government. Nations: Forms of Government. Definitions of the major governmental terms and types of government are as follows: Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority..
Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good. Various political thinkers have distinguished types of government activity.
Montesquieu was the first, however, to urge the creation of three separate institutions or divisions of government—the executive, legislative, and judicial — a distinction that became common in almost all modern constitutions.
There are two different forms of arbitration: private and judicial arbitration. Private arbitration is the most common form of ADR.
Sometimes referred to as contractual arbitration, private arbitration is the product of an agreement to arbitrate drafted by the parties who enter a relationship anticipating that disputes will arise, but who.