Introduction Over the last two decades, the concepts of learner autonomy and independence have gained momentum, the former becoming a 'buzz-word' within the context of language learning Little, It is a truism that one of the most important spin-offs of more communicatively oriented language learning and teaching has been the premium placed on the role of the learner in the language learning process see Wenden,
It appears here with the kind permission of the publisher, F. It is a slightly edited version of the chapter written jointly by Jim Simkin and myself for the third edition of Current Psychotherapies.
What is Learner Autonomy and How Can It Be Fostered? Dimitrios Thanasoulas akasa74 [at] kaja-net.com1. Introduction Over the last two decades, the concepts of learner autonomy and independence have gained momentum, the former becoming a 'buzz-word' within the context of language learning (Little, 2). This paper, coauthored with James S. Simkin in , was the Gestalt Therapy chapter in the edition of Corsini and Wedding's Current Psychotherapies (4th Edition). It appears here with the kind permission of the publisher, F.E. Peacock, Publishers, Inc. of Itasca, Illinois. By the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire was in extent much like Romania of the Macedonian Emperors had been in the midth century, with, of course, now the same capital, Constantinople.. Much that seems characteristic of Islam today, like the domed mosque and perhaps even the symbol of the Crescent, are due to Byzantine influence by way of the Ottomans.
The version was a complete rewriting of a version Jim did by himself for the second edition of Current Psychotherapies. The revisions I made in the version were minor and were made after Jim's death. Overview Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological-existential therapy founded by Frederick Fritz and Laura Perls in the s.
It teaches therapists and patients the phenomenological method of awareness, in which perceiving, feeling, and acting are distinguished from interpreting and reshuffling preexisting attitudes.
Explanations and interpretations are considered less reliable than what is directly perceived and felt. Patients and therapists in Gestalt therapy dialogue, that is, communicate their phenomenological perspectives. Differences in perspectives become the focus of experimentation and continued dialogue.
The goal is for clients to become aware of what they are doing, how they are doing it, and how they can change themselves, and at the same time, to learn to accept and value themselves. Gestalt therapy focuses more on process what is happening than content what is being discussed.
The emphasis is on what is being done, thought and felt at the moment rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should be. Basic Concepts The Phenomenological Perspective Phenomenology is a discipline that helps people stand aside from their usual way of thinking so that they can tell the difference between what is actually being perceived and felt in the current situation and what is residue from the past Idhe, A Gestalt exploration respects, uses and clarifies immediate, "naive" perception "undebauched by learning" Wertheimer,p.
Gestalt therapy treats what is "subjectively" felt in the present, as well as what is "objectively" observed, as real and important data.
This contrasts with approaches that treat what the patient experiences as "mere appearances" and uses interpretation to find "real meaning. In Gestalt therapy insight is clear understanding of the structure of the situation being studied.
Awareness without systematic exploration is not ordinarily sufficient to develop insight. Therefore, Gestalt therapy uses focused awareness and experimentation to achieve insight. How one becomes aware is crucial to any phenomenological investigation.
The phenomenologist studies not only personal awareness but also the awareness process itself. The patient is to learn how to become aware of awareness. How the therapist and the patient experience their relationship is of special concern in Gestalt therapy Yontef, The Field Theory Perspective The scientific world view that underlies the Gestalt phenomenological perspective is field theory.
Field theory is a method of exploring that describes the whole field of which the event is currently a part rather than analyzing the event in terms of a class to which it belongs by its "nature" e. The field is a whole in which the parts are in immediate relationship and responsive to each other and no part is uninfluenced by what goes on elsewhere in the field.
The field replaces the notion of discrete, isolated particles. The person in his or her life space constitutes a field. In field theory no action is at a distance; that is, what has effect must touch that which is affected in time and space.
Gestalt therapists work in the here and now and are sensitive to how the here and now includes residues of the past, such as body posture, habits, and beliefs.
The phenomenological field is defined by the observer and is meaningful only when one knows the frame of reference of the observer. The observer is necessary because what one sees is somewhat a function of how and when one looks.An Introduction to Spanish Articles.
Quick Answer El or la? As a Spanish-language learner, this is a question you've probably asked yourself often when having to assign an article to a noun. Artículos, articles in English, are small functional words that go before a noun to tell us if the noun we are referring to is general or specific.
This paper, coauthored with James S. Simkin in , was the Gestalt Therapy chapter in the edition of Corsini and Wedding's Current Psychotherapies (4th Edition). It appears here with the kind permission of the publisher, F.E.
Peacock, Publishers, Inc. of Itasca, Illinois.
Introduction - The World of The Spanish-American War (Hispanic Division, Library of Congress) Spain proclaimed the autonomy of Puerto Rico on November 25, , although the news did not reach the island until January and a new government established on February 12, Today, however, the Spanish Language is taught by moving slowly and covering grammar and spelling rules.
Again, this is an introduction. If this is the first time you are attempting to learn Spanish, do not become discouraged if you cannot understand, pronounce, or memorize some of the things discussed here.
Introduction and Summary "Somewhere along the line of development we discover what we really are, and then we make our real decision for which we are responsible. kaja-net.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of kaja-net.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
Students can save on their education by taking the kaja-net.com online, self-paced courses and earn widely transferable college credit recommendations for a fraction of the cost of a traditional course.